1956, November 17: Jammu and Kashmir Constituent Assembly adopts constitution which includes un-amendable provision about State being an integral part – atoot ang – of India. New constitution due to come in force on January 26, 1957. It declares, “the State of Jammu and Kashmir is and shall be an integral part of the Union of India.”


January 16: Five years after its last meeting and nearly 30 months of direct though fruitless Pak-India negotiations, Security Council meets to continue consideration of Kashmir issue at Pakistan’s request.

January 24: Through a resolution Security Council reaffirms determination of Kashmir’s future by plebiscite and declares that any action by Jammu and Kashmir Constituent Assembly and its support by parties would not constitute a disposition of the State in keeping with that principle.

February 21: Security Council asks its President, Gunnar Jarring of Sweden to examine with the two governments any proposals likely to promote a settlement having regard to earlier UNCIP resolutions. During debate USSR denounces what it calls “imperialist interference” in Kashmir and supports India and its stand. Also vetoes on February 20th resolution which includes provision for “a temporary UN force for Kashmir”. Pakistan charges India with going back on solemn international commitments and brutal repression in Kashmir of popular upsurge in favor of plebiscite. India calls Pakistan “aggressor” and maintains it has no obligation to discharge until vacation of aggression (more or less the same stand as it has taken 38 years later in 1995). Also declares that its voluntary effort to consult people of State has already implemented through elections to Jammu and Kashmir Assembly. Adds that UNCIP and other resolutions have become outdated.

March 14-April 11: Security Council President Jarring visits Pakistan and India.

April 29: Jarring submits his report to the Security Council which makes no specific proposals as such but affirms that “the parties were still desirous of finding a solution”. Reports that on being told by India that Pakistan has not implemented Part-I of UNCIP resolution of August 13, 1948, in particular provisions relating to agreement to “refrain from taking any measures that might augment military potential of the forces under their control in the State” and creation and maintenance of atmosphere favorable to promotion of further negotiations, he suggested arbitration. Jarring’s proposal that arbitration should be limited to determining which state has failed to implement provisions and to indicate to parties concerned which measures they should take to arrive at full implementation is accepted by Pakistan but rejected by India. Jarring hopes that India and Pakistan agree to hold high-level conference “without prejudice to their respective positions on the Kashmir question”. He proposes that the agenda “might include the basic differences which the parties find to stand in the way of a settlement and such other matters as the parties might find would contribute toward the implementation of the resolutions of the UN Commission on India and Pakistan on August 13, 1948 and January 5, 1949 and toward a peaceful settlement”.



April 1: Permit system for entry to State from India is abolished.

September 15: Pakistan President Ayub Khan holds meeting with Jawaharlal Nehru at Delhi airport in bid to persuade India to settle Kashmir.

October 1: Constitution is amended to extend jurisdiction of Union Election Commission to Jammu and Kashmir and State high court is brought at par with high courts in rest of India.


May: President Ayub and Nehru meet in London at Commonwealth Prime Ministers’ Conference and discuss Kashmir but without making progress towards settlement.

September: Nehru visits Karachi and Rawalpindi and Kashmir forms one of main topics of discussion between Ayub and him but once again, this meeting too fails to produce results

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