Second round of Pak-India talks at Delhi – January 16-20 – and third at Karachi – April 21-25 – see Pakistan calling for plebiscite and India opposing it, at fourth round at Calcutta – March 12-14 – India suggests readjustment of ceasefire line to settle dispute which Pakistan rejects, while fifth round at Karachi –

April 21-25 – is taken up with Indian protest at recently signed Pak-China boundary agreement under which some area of former State is ceded to China. At sixth and final round at Delhi – May 14-16 – Pakistan proposes plebiscite confined to Valley which it further suggests should be placed under international control for 12 to 15 months prior to holding of vote. If plebiscite not acceptable, then people’s wishes should be ascertained in some other form and dispute settled. India rejects both proposals.

December 27: Much political upheaval in Kashmir with installation of openly integrationist government in State, climaxed with mysterious disappearance of Holy Prophet of Islam Hazrat Mohammad (SAW)’s hair – a much-revered relic – from Hazratbal shrine near Srinagar. Mass protests all over State with hundreds of thousands out in streets, wailing and denouncing India and its puppet regime in State.

1964

January 4: Holy relic of Hazrat Mohammad (Peace be upon him) just as mysteriously reappears. Awami Action Committee formed to recover relic demands, release of Shaikh Abdullah, withdrawal of cases against him and holding of plebiscite.

February 3: Security Council meets and holds a series of seven meetings.

April 8: Abdullah released

May 18: Last meeting of Security Council ends with summation by President of Council. Bhutto informs members that Kashmir is in revolt against India and refers to anti-Muslim riots in India. Indian representative M.C. Chagla counters by restating that Jammu and Kashmir is India’s integral part and UNCIP resolutions have become obsolete and, further, that constitutional changes to bring about Kashmir’s integration with India are internal Indian affair and Pakistan has no right to interfere or complain. Bhutto replies that UNCIP resolutions can only be abrogated by agreement of Pakistan and India, UN and the people of Jammu and Kashmir. Points out that if UNCIP resolutions are obsolete, so is the ceasefire which they produced. Members suggest indefinite adjournment to enable new trends emerging to take over, especially in view of Abdullah’s release.

May 24: Nehru invites Abdullah to Delhi and the two make up. Abdullah travels to Pakistan and also goes to Azad Kashmir where he confers with its President K.H. Khurshid. Nehru is said to have had a change of heart on Kashmir, though others deny it – to this day. Ayub later records that Abdullah proposed confederation like arrangements between Pakistan, India and Kashmir, which he rejected. Mirza Afzal Beg, who accompanies Abdullah to Pakistan later tells Indian author P.L. Lakhanpal, “various solutions of the dispute were talked about in general terms but no preferences for any particular solutions were indicated.”

May 27: Nehru’s sudden death in New Delhi aborts Abdullah’s mission without any understanding on any point. Abdullah returns to India.

September: Elder Indian statesman Jayaprakash Narayan visits Pakistan and feels there is a chance of settling Kashmir dispute.

October 12: President Ayub Khan and Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri meet in Karachi but no dramatic announcements are made nor is there any expression of mutual goodwill. However, it is agreed that next contact will be at ministerial level.

December 21: Article-356 and 357 of the Indian constitution providing for extension of Presidential or federal rule in Jammu and Kashmir by India evoke strong protests in Valley and is taken exception to by Pakistan through various communications to Security Council.

 

1965

March: Indian government permits Abdullah and Afzal Beg to make the pilgrimage to Makkah. From there they decide to travel to Algiers via London to attend Afro-Asian Conference – which never takes place because of coup d’etat against regime. In London, they learn about arrest in Srinagar of 165 leaders and supporters of Plebiscite Front. Abdullah travels to Algiers where he meets Chinese Prime Minister Zhou En-lai, which causes widespread official and public anger in India. Abdullah’s passport is cancelled and he is ordered to return.

May 8: Abdullah turns down offer of Pakistani passport and arrives in New Delhi with Beg and is arrested and detained in Ootacumand, thousands of miles from Kashmir. Widespread protests in Valley and a near civil disobedience movement. After military clashes in Rann of Kutch, separating Pakistan’s Sindh province from India’s marshy Kutch region, Pakistan seems to get better of Indian troops. British mediation produces ceasefire.

May 19: Major clash occurs on ceasefire line in Kashmir and 40 Pakistani troops are reported killed. June 30: Status quo ante agreement is signed between Pakistan and India and arbitration accepted in case the two sides fail to settle differences (dispute is finally settled in July 1969). More changes are introduced on April 10, State to integrate it further with Indian Union. Nomenclatures are changed to bring them in line with those prevailing elsewhere in India, with the Prime Minister now called Chief Minister and Sadar-i-Ryasat. Earlier in January, Indian National Congress, ruling party in Delhi, has established branch in Kashmir and Prime Minister G.M. Sadiq announced dissolution of National Conference and absorption of its membership in Indian National Congress.

June-July: Incidents continue. There are increasing reports of infiltration from Azad Kashmir into Indian Kashmir. By first week of August, as part of ‘Operation Gibraltar’, an estimated 1,000 to 3,000 fighters (infiltrators to India;) have crossed over. A clandestine radio station calling itself Sada-i-Kashmir (The voice of Kashmir) starts broadcasting calling for uprising against Indian occupation.

August 14-15: Indians attack Pakistani positions in Kargil in north Kashmir.

August 16: 100,000 people march on Indian Parliament and demand action against so-called Pakistani “aggressors”. Indian army captures important positions in Azad Kashmir’s Titwal region and Uri-Poonch salient.

September 1: Pakistani and Azad Kashmiri troops supported by armor cross the Pakistan-Jammu border near Chhamb and capture sizeable territory.

September 6: India attacks Pakistan on two fronts near Lahore and Sialkot. Full-scale war breaks out though there is no formal declaration.

September 9: UN Secretary General U.Thant travels to the subcontinent.

September 17: USSR steps in to fill void and promote its international peace-making stature. Aleksei Kosygin writes to Ayub and Shastri proposing that they meet in Tashkent.

September 23: After 14 days of intense fighting in which there is much loss of life on both sides, ceasefire is declared after Security Council demands one. In Security Council, Pakistan’s Foreign Minister Z.A. Bhutto demands discussion of Kashmir question in near future or he will withdraw his delegation.

October: In Srinagar demonstrations take place with student participation demanding plebiscite to decide future of State.

October 10: Many leaders including Mirwaiz Mohammed Farooq are arrested and many others by October 21.


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